If you are a current Columbia graduate student in any school and interested in being a teaching assistant for this course, please email a brief explanation of interest and your CV to firstname.lastname@example.org.
Power, Rights, and Social Change:
Professor Bernard E. Harcourt
POLS UN3173: SPRING 2018Course days/times: MW 4:10 – 5:25pm Course location: TBD Recitation section: Required, TBD Teaching assistants: TBD
This lecture course, accompanied by its weekly recitation section, will introduce students to the field of justice. It will combine an intellectual history of conceptions of justice and modes of political change with an exploration of the main areas of public interest and advocacy. The course is intended to serve as a bridge from the Columbia Core to present issues of social justice. Throughout, the discussion will center on how we—contemporary public citizens—can improve our social and political condition and achieve justice.
The course will integrate four principal dimensions. First, it will explore how conceptions of justice have changed over the course of the past three millennia and will ask which conceptions of justice make more sense in our present political condition. From ancient ideas of substantive justice and natural law to more modern liberal ideas of legalism and the rule of law, the course will outline, compare, and interrogate different ways of thinking about a just society. Second, the course will investigate different modes of political action and how they too have changed over the course of history. It will explore earlier forms of political contestation and ask what political action looks like today. How, for instance, might impact litigation compare with civil disobedience or other forms of contemporary disobedience, such as Occupy Wall Street, #BlackLivesMatter, or hacktivism? Third, the course will offer an overview of several major areas of public interest advocacy and public service today—from criminal justice reform, to voting rights, struggles for racial, ethnic, gender, and sexual equality, immigration reform, environmental justice, and international human rights. Fourth, the course will interrogate different kinds of political action and explore what type of political interventions seem most suited to our current political condition. It will ask, for instance, how best to address issues of mass incarceration, climate change, racial and gender inequality, or immigration discrimination.
The course will explore what it means to pursue the public interest and to become a public citizen today, informed by the long tradition of writings on justice and social change. How do we pursue justice in our time? How can history and social theory inform our current political practices? In sum, what is to be done in the face of political oppression or injustice? How do we build more just societies?
Students will be required to read the assigned materials, attend the two lectures and one weekly recitation section, and participate actively in class.
Students will also be required to read a serious newspaper of their choice on a regular basis (such as the New York Times, the Wall Street Journal, the Washington Post, the Guardian, etc.). Each week, each student will be required to share one newspaper article of special interest on the class blog by Wednesday midnight, with a short original paragraph describing it. From those articles, the instructor will choose one shared newspaper article to discuss together in class the following week.
Students will be required to write three 750-word essays due by Wednesday at midnight after weeks 3, 6, and 11 (as indicated on the following syllabus) relating one of those selected newspaper articles to our course readings and discussion. The essays should be based on close readings of the newspaper article and of our assigned readings in order to provide a critical conversation between our classroom discussion and current problems. These essays are intended to help students more actively engage contemporary problems in a fully informed manner. Students will post these essays on our class blog (detailed instructions will be given in class).
There will be a one hour mid-term exam focused on the assigned readings.
There will be a final paper of no more than 2,500 words that will ask you to develop, on the basis of our assigned readings and classroom discussion, a fully theorized position of your own addressing how best to resolve a current problem of social justice.
The final grade for the course will be determined in the following manner:
Lecture attendance, section attendance, and participation (20%)
Three essays (10% each)
Midterm exam (20%)
Final paper (30%)
Statement Regarding Academic Integrity
Each student in this course is expected to abide by the Columbia University Code of Academic Integrity. Any work submitted by a student in this course for academic credit must be the student’s own work. The complete Faculty Statement on Academic Integrity can be found at: https://www.college.columbia.edu/academics/integrity-statement
and the Columbia University Undergraduate Guide to Academic Integrity can be found here: https://www.college.columbia.edu/academics/academicintegrity
Any violation of the Academic Code of Integrity will be forwarded to the Office of Judicial Affairs and Community Standards and will result in a failing grade for the course.
Statement Regarding disability accommodations
If you are a student with a disability and have an DS-certified Accommodation Letter, please come to my office hours to confirm your accommodation needs. If you believe that you might have a disability that requires accommodation, you should contact Disability Services at 212-854-2388 and email@example.com.
All assigned readings will be available on Courseworks. A Course Reader will be available for purchase at Book Culture (112@ Broadway).
The Problems of Justice [Class #1]
We face today, in the United States and globally, a range of social justice problems that involve inequalities of race, ethnicity, gender, and sexuality, massive overincarceration, challenges to the environment, discrimination against immigrants and refugees, inadequacies in political representation and voting, and human rights violations. These problems are very concrete, but they also raise deep theoretical questions. To address them fully, we need to think both practically and critically, and draw on our core intellectual traditions. In this first class, we will introduce one area of social justice—the problem of mass incarceration—and begin to explore the practical problems of how to seek social change.
Danielle Allen, “American Inferno: A Crime Committed at Fifteen Derailed My Cousin’s Life. Why Couldn’t I Save Him?” The New Yorker, July 24, 2017, http://www.newyorker.com/magazine/2017/07/24/the-life-of-a-south-central-statistic
Bryan Stevenson, Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption (New York: Penguin, 2014), excerpts.
Hannah Arendt on “The Right to Have Rights” (excerpts)
Natasha Lennard, “Know Your Rights: We Limit Our Resistance to Fascism by Relying on Liberal Conceptions of Human Rights,” The New Inquiry, June 28, 2017, https://thenewinquiry.com/know-your-rights/
I. The Landscape of Justice
In this first part, we will take a tour of the major areas of social justice struggle, from mass incarceration and criminal justice reform, to matters of racial, ethnic, gender, and sexuality equality, to immigration, voting rights, environmental justice, and international human rights—and some of the problems that surround these struggles. We will begin to read about these areas, dipping into some more than others, and welcome a guest speaker to talk about their struggles to address social justice.
A. Fields of Justice [Class #2]
Ari Berman, Give Us the Ballot: The Modern Struggle for Voting Rights in America (Macmillan, 2015) (excerpts).
Randy Shilts, And the Band Played On: Politics, People, and the AIDS Epidemic (New York: St. Martin’s Press, 1987) (excerpts).
Virginia Eubanks, Digital Dead End: Fighting for Social Justice in the Information Age (MIT Press, 2011) (excerpts).
B. Guest Speaker from a Justice Field [Class #3]
[Writings about and by special guest TBD]
II. Two Paradigms of Justice
In this first part, we will tease out the two major conceptions of justice, what might be referred to as a “liberal legal” position that emerged with modern political thought, and a more ancient “substantive justice” or “natural justice” position that preceded it. These are, to be sure, broad and encompassing paradigms, but the contrast is foundational to how we think about justice today. During this first part, we will draw heavily on the foundations of the Core Curriculum.
A. The Liberal Conception of Law and Legality
Thomas Hobbes (1588-1679), considered one of the first modern political theorists, had a deeply authoritarian streak, and yet, as we will see, set important foundations for the liberal conception of the rule of law. The Hobbesian notion of law as “hedges” was then developed and refined by modern political thinkers, such as Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Mill. In this section, we will explore this “rule of law” conception of justice, putting in conversation the earlier writings of Hobbes, Locke, Wollstonecraft, and Mill, with present expressions, including John Rawls and Judith Shklar.
1. The Foundations of Legal Liberalism [Class #4]
Justice Abe Fortas, Concerning Dissent and Disobedience (New American Library, 1968) (excerpts)
Thomas Hobbes, “A Discourse of Laws,” 105-119, in Thomas Hobbes, Three Discourses: A Critical Modern Edition of Newly Identified Work of the Young Hobbes, eds. Noel B. Reynolds and Arlene W. Saxonhouse (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1995)
Thomas Hobbes, “A Dialogue between a Philosopher and a Student of the Common Laws of England,” ed. Joseph Cropsey (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1997)
Thomas Hobbes, Leviathan, ed. Richard Tuck (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1996), chapter 30.
2. The Tradition of Legal Liberalism I [Class #5]
John Locke, Second Treatise of Government, in Locke, Two Treatises of Government, ed. Peter Laslett (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1988), §§ 25-32, 52-58,77-94, and 222-232.
John Stuart Mill, On Liberty (New York: Norton, 1975), chapters 1, 3, 4, and 5.
Judith N. Shklar, “Political Theory and the Rule of Law,” in The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology, eds. Hutchinson and Monahan (Toronto: Carswell, 1987).
Michael J. Sandel, “Political Theory and the Rule of Law,” in The Rule of Law: Ideal or Ideology, eds. Hutchinson and Monahan (Toronto: Carswell, 1987).
*** First 750-word essay due on Class #5 Day at midnight ***
3. The Tradition of Legal Liberalism II [Class #6]
Mary Wollstonecraft, A Vindication of the Rights of Woman (New York: Penguin, 1982), author’s introduction, dedication, chapters 1, 2 and 9.
John Rawls, “The Rule of Law,” A Theory of Justice (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1971), §38, pp. 235-243.
Joseph Raz, “The Rule of Law and its Virtue,” in Raz, The Authority of Law (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1979).
B. Theories of Substantive and Natural Justice
We could contrast the “rule of law tradition” to another conception of justice focused more on substantive outcomes of justice, and often revolving around notions of nature, natural law, sometimes even divine law. This conception traces to antiquity and has been expressed throughout history. Here we will tease our different dimensions of substantive justice. Students interested in a helpful resource to understand all this should visit: http://www.iep.utm.edu/justwest/#SH1a
1. The Roots of Substantive Justice [Class #7]
Martin Luther King, “Letter from Birmingham Jail,” The Atlantic, Volume 212, Number 2, pp. 78-88 (August 1963), available at
Thomas Aquinas, On Law, Morality, and Politics, ed. William P. Baumgarth and Richard J. Regan, S.J. (called “Law”). Indianapolis: Hackett, 1988 (excerpts)
Aristotle, Nicomachean Ethics, Book V
Aristotle, The Politics, trans. Carnes Lord (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1984), Book 3, Chapters 8-18, pp. 96-117.
Aristotle, Art of Rhetoric, Book I, Section 15
2. Conceptions of Substantive Justice I [Class #8]
Plato, The Republic, trans. Allan Bloom (New York: Basic Books, 1991), 368c-376d, 412b-415d, and 434d-444e.
Plato, The Laws, trans. Thomas L. Pangle (New York: Basic Books, 1980), 641e-650b, and 734e-745e.
Michael J. Sandel, Liberalism and the Limits of Justice (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1982), pp. 60-87, 150-183.
3. Conceptions of Substantive Justice II [Class #9]
Jean-Jacques Rousseau, The Social Contract, Book II, Chapters 6-7.
Maximilien Robespierre, “On Subsistence,” in Robespierre: Virtue and Terror, trans. John Howe (New York: Verso, 2007), pp. 49-56.
Iris Marion Young, Justice and the Politics of Difference (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1990), pp. 3-14, 156-191.
Charles W. Mill, Racial Liberalism, PMLA, 123(5) (2008).
III. Critiques, Debates, Controversies
In this section, we will explore the different debates and conversations that have taken place between these different traditions to begin to map some lines of controversy and struggle.
A. Critiques of Authoritarian Tendencies [Class #10]
Hannah Arendt, The Origins of Totalitarianism (New York: Harcourt, Brace & World, 1966) (excerpts).
Friedrich Hayek, The Road to Serfdom (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 2007) (excerpts).
B. Nineteenth Century Critiques of Liberalism [Class #11]
Karl Marx, On the Jewish Question, in The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edition, ed. Robert C. Tucker (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978), p. 26-46.
Karl Marx, “The So-Called Primitive Accumulation,” in Capital, Volume I, in The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edition, pp. 431-438.
Friedrich Nietzsche, On the Genealogy of Morals, trans. Walter Kaufmann, First and Second Essay.
Friedrich Nietzsche, Beyond Good and Evil, trans. Walter Kaufmann, § 29-38 and 257-260.
*** Second 750-word essay due on Class #11 Day at midnight ***
C. Foucault on Law and Legality [Class #12]
In this class, we will explore Michel Foucault’s rich engagement with legal practice and institutions, and juridical power, in the early 1970s. In particular, we will focus on at least two important ways in which his work drew on the juridical: first, in the development of his ideas about the role of legal forms in the production of truth and the eventual birth of the social sciences; and second, in the transformation of his theories about “illégalismes” and their role in producing new juridical forms like the prison. The readings trace a development of thought from his 1972 lectures on Penal Theories and Institutions, to his Rio lectures in 1973 on the production of truth through legal forms, to his 1973 lectures on The Punitive Society on illégalismes, and finally to his more polished exposition in 1975 in Discipline and Punish.
Michel Foucault, The Punitive Society: Lectures at the Collège de France, 1972-1973 (New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2015), pp.139-169.
Bernard E. Harcourt, “Course Context,” in Foucault, The Punitive Society, pp. 265-310.
Michel Foucault, “Truth and Juridical Form (1973),” in Michel Foucault, Power (Essential Works Vol.3) (New York: New Press, 2000), pp. 32-52.
Michel Foucault, “Illegalities and Delinquency,” Discipline and Punish (New York: Vintage Books, 1995), pp. 257-292.
Bernard E. Harcourt, Illusion of Order (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2001), pp. 150-159.
D. The Paradox of Neoliberal Penality [Class #13]
François Quesnay, “Legal Despotism,” in Despotism in China (1767)
Adam Smith, “On Policing,” Lectures on Jurisprudence, excerpts
Jeremy Bentham, “The Panopticon Letters” (excerpts)
Bernard E. Harcourt, “The Chicago School,” in The Illusion of Free Markets (Harvard, 2011)
Bernard E. Harcourt, “Neoliberal Penality: A Brief Genealogy,” Theoretical Criminology, Vol.14(1), pp. 74-92
Loïc Wacquant, “Theoretical Coda: A Sketch of the Neoliberal State,” in Loïc Wacquant, Punishing the Poor: The Neoliberal Government of Social Insecurity (Durham and London: Duke University Press, 2009)
E. Rights and the Critique of Rights [Class #14]
Declaration of the Rights of Man (1789) and Universal Declaration of Human Rights (1948) http://www.un.org/en/universaldeclaration-human-rights/
Hannah Arendt on the right to have rights (excerpts).
Seyla Benhabib, The Rights of Others (Cambridge University Press, 2004) (excerpts).
Stephanie DeGooyer, Alastair Hunt, Samuel Moyn, and Astra Taylor, The Right to Have Rights (New York: Verso, 2018) (excerpts)
Stokely Carmichael, Black Power, address at Berkeley (October 1966) (excerpts)
Janet Halley, “Sexuality Harassment,” pp. 80-104, in Catherine MacKinnon & Reva Siegel (eds.), Directions in Sexual Harassment Law (New Haven: Yale University Press, 2002)
Wendy Brown, “The Paradox of Rights” (excerpts)
Duncan Kennedy, “Critique of Rights,” in Left Liberalism/Left Legalism (excerpts)
Patricia J. Williams, The Alchemy of Race and Rights (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1991) (excerpts)
Sam Moyn, The Last Utopia: Human Rights in History (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 2010) (excerpts)
*** Midterm Exam: In Class Exam in Class #15] ***
*** SPRING RECESS ***
IV. Forms of Political Intervention
In this section, we will explore and analyze different forms of political activism—from traditional litigation of civil and political rights to social movements and more radical forms of political praxis, including revolution.
A. Civil and Political Rights [Class #16]
This week, we will also screen the film by Raoul Peck, I am not your Negro (2016).
1. The Civil Rights Movement
W. E. B. Du Bois, The Souls of Black Folk, excerpts.
Branch Taylor, Parting the Waters: America in the King Years 1954-63 (New York: Simon & Schuster, 1989), excerpts.
Jeanne Theoharis, The Rebellious Life of Mrs. Rosa Parks (New York: Penguin, 2015) (excerpts)
Danielle L. McGuire, At the Dark End of the Street: Black Women, Rape, and Resistance--A New History of the Civil Rights Movement from Rosa Parks to the Rise of Black Power (Vintage 2011) (excerpts)
Martin Luther King, Jr., A Testament of Hope: The Essential Writings of Martin Luther King, Jr. (San Francisco: Harper & Row, 1986), excerpts.
Malcolm X, The End of White World Supremacy: Four Speeches by Malcolm X. Benjamin Karin, ed. (New York: Monthly Review Press, 1971) (excerpts).
Joshua Bloom and Waldo E. Martin Jr., Black against Empire: The History and Politics of the Black Panther Party (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2014) (excerpts).
Angela Y. Davis, Angela Davis: An Autobiography (Intl’ Publishers, 2013) (excerpts)
2. Using the Rights Framework [Class #17]
Brown v. Board of Education, 347 U.S. 483 (1954)
Loving v. Virginia, 388 U.S. 1 (1967)
Obergefell v. Hodges, 576 U.S. ___ (2015)
Jack Greenberg, Litigation For Social Change: Methods, Limits, and Role in Democracy (New York, 1974) (excerpts)
Gerald N. Rosenberg, The Hollow Hope: Can Courts Bring About Social Change? (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1991) (excerpts).
Kimberle Crenshaw, “Mapping the Margins: Intersectionality, Identity Politics, and Violence against Women of Color,” Stanford Law Review Vol. 43, No. 6 (Jul., 1991), pp. 1241-1299
B. Social Activism
1. Civil vs. Political Disobedience [Class #18]
David Thoreau, On Civil Disobedience (Applewood Books, 2000) (excerpts)
Hannah Arendt, “Reflections on Civil Disobedience,” New Yorker, September 12, 1970
Bernard E. Harcourt, “Political Disobedience,” Critical Inquiry, Vol. 39(1), Autumn 2012, pp. 33-55.
Stéphane Hessel, Time for Outrage! [Indignez-vous!] (New York: Twelve, 2011) (excerpts)
2. Social Movements: #BlackLivesMatter [Class #19]
Barbara Ransby, “Black Lives Matter Is Democracy in Action,” New York Times, October 21, 2017
Jelani Cobb, Where Is BlackLivesMatter Headed?, New Yorker, March 14, 2016
Keeanga-Yamatha Taylor, From #BlackLivesMatter to Black Liberation (Chicago: Haymarket Books, 2016) (excerpts).
Ta-Nehisi Coates, Between the World and Me (New York: Random House, 2015) (excerpts).
Christopher Lebron The Making of Black Lives Matter (New York: Oxford University Press, 2018) (excerpts).
C. Political and Radical Praxis
1. Infrapolitics [Class #20]
James C. Scott, “The Infrapolitics of Subordinate Groups,” pp. 183-201, in James C. Scott, Domination and the Arts of Resistance (New Haven and London: Yale University Press, 1990)
Saidiya Hartman, “Venus in Two Acts,” Small Axe, No. 26, Vol. 12(2), June 2008, pp. 1-14
2. Hacktivism [Class #21]
E. Gabriella Coleman, Hacker, Hoaxer, Whistleblower, Spy: The Many Faces of Anonymous. London: Verso, 2015 (excerpts).
Bernard E. Harcourt, Exposed: Desire and Disobedience in the Digital Age (Harvard, 2015) (excerpts)
*** Third 750-word essay due on Class #21 Day at midnight ***
3. Foucault: An Engaged Life [Class #22]
Challenging the Punitive Society: Foucault and the GIP, essays in Carceral Notebooks, Volume 12 (2016)
Behrooz Tamari-Ghabrizi, Foucault in Iran. Islamic Revolution After the Enlightenment. Minneapolis: University of Minnesota Press, 2016 (excerpts).
Foucault in Brazil, essays in Carceral Notebooks, Volume 13 (2017)
4. On Revolution [Class #23]
Reinhardt Koselleck, “Historical Criteria of the Modern Concept of Revolution,” in Futures Past: On the Semantics of Historical Time (New York: Columbia University Press, 2004).
Karl Marx, The Eighteenth Brumaire of Louis Bonaparte, in The Marx-Engels Reader, 2nd edition, ed. Robert C. Tucker (New York: W.W. Norton & Company, 1978), p. 594-617.
Mao Zedong, Quotations from Chairman Mao Tse-Tung, ed. Stuart Schram (New York: Bantam, 1972) (excerpts).
Hannah Arendt, “Foundation II: Novus Ordo Saeclorum,” in Hannah Arendt, On Revolution (London: Penguin Classics, 2006), pp. 179-214.
Ernesto Laclau, New Reflections on the Revolutions of Our Times (New York: Verso, 1990) (excerpts).
V. The Problem of Violence
A central problem at the heart of political practice is the question of violence and how to relate to it—both in terms of the use of violence by the state and by political activists. It is a problem that cannot be ignored.
A. The Question of Violence [Class #24]
Friedrich Nietzsche, Genealogy of Morals, second essay, § 3-14.
Walter Benjamin, “Critique of Violence,” pp. 277-300, in Walter Benjamin, Reflections: Essays, Aphorisms, Autobiographical Writings (New York: Schocken Books, 1986)
Franz Fanon, “On Violence,” pp. 1-62, in Franz Fanon, The Wretched of the Earth (New York: Grove Press, 1963)
Sartre, “Preface” to Fanon’s The Wretched of the Earth
Stokely Carmichael, alias Kwame Ture and Charles V. Hamilton, Black Power: The Politics of Liberation (New York: Random House, 1967) (excerpts).
John Brown, address following guilty verdict (November 2, 1859)
Emmeline Pankhurst, My Own Story (1914) (violence of Suffragettes)
The Battle of Algiers (film, 1970) (excerpted portions)
B. Nonviolent Action [Class #25]
Mohandas Gandhi, Non-Violent Resistance (Satyagraha) (New York: Dover Publications, 2001) (excerpts)
Karuna Mantena, The Power of Nonviolence, Aeon (2016)
Martin Luther King Jr., “Nonviolence and Racial Justice,” available at http://lib.tcu.edu/staff/bellinger/rel-viol/MLK-1957.pdf
Karuna Mantena, “Another Realism: The Politics of Gandhian Nonviolence,” American Political Science Review 106:2 (2012).
Banu Bargu, Starve and Immolate: The Politics of Human Weapons (New York: Columbia University Press, 2016) (excerpts).
VI. Justice Today
In this part, we will turn to two specific areas of social justice and explore how actors have struggled to bring about social change.
A. Struggling Against the Death Penalty [Class #26]
Michael Meltsner, Cruel and Unusual: The Supreme Court and Capital Punishment (New York: Random House, 1973) (excerpts).
Bryan Stevenson, Just Mercy: A Story of Justice and Redemption (New York: Penguin, 2014), excerpts.
Jennifer Gonnerman, “The Long Defense of the Alabama Death-Row Prisoner Doyle Lee Hamm,” New Yorker, September 13, 2016
In connection with this session, you may be interested in watching The Roger Hood Lecture delivered at Oxford by BE Harcourt on June 2, 2017, available at https://youtu.be/0hkHxp1RYpo
B. Fighting Discrimination against Immigrants [Class #27]
Moustafa Bayoumi, This Muslim American Life: Dispatches from the War on Terror (New York: New York University Press, 2015) (excerpts)
Khaled A. Beydoun, “Between Muslim and White: The Legal Construction of Arab American Identity” (November 22, 2014). 69 N.Y.U. Ann. Surv. Am. L. 29 (2013). Available at SSRN: https://ssrn.com/abstract=2529506
Virginia Eubanks, Automating Inequality: How High-Tech Tools Profile, Police and the Punish the Poor (forthcoming 2017) (excerpts)
Jonathan Blitzer, “What the Supreme Court’s Travel Ban Ruling Means in Practice,” New Yorker, June 26, 2017, http://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/what-the-supreme-courts-travel-ban-ruling-means-in-practice
Clyde Haberman, “For Yale Law Group Fighting Trump’s Travel Ban, Echoes of 1991,” New York Times, March 6, 2017, available https://www.nytimes.com/2017/03/06/us/for-yale-law-group-fighting-trumps-travel-ban-echoes-of-1991.html
Conclusion: On Enlightenment and Critique [Class #28]
We will conclude by exploring the tension between progressive enlightenment and the need for constant critique of our own practices.
Immanuel Kant, “An Answer to the Question: What is Enlightenment?” in Kant, Political Writings (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1991), pp. 54-60.
Michel Foucault, “What is Enlightenment?” in Michel Foucault: Ethics: Subjectivity and
Truth, ed. Paul Rabinow (New York: The New Press, 1997), pp. 303-319.
Jürgen Habermas, “Taking Aim at the Heart of the Present: On Foucault’s Lecture on Kant’s What is Enlightenment?” in Critique and Power: Recasting the Foucault/Habermas Debate, ed. Michael Kelly (Cambridge: MIT Press, 1994), pp. 149-154.
Michel Foucault, “What is Critique?”, pp. 41-81, in Michel Foucault and Sylvere Lotringer, The Politics of Truth (New York: Semiotext(e), 2007) (excerpts).
Judith Butler, “What is Critique? An Essay on Foucault’s Virtue,” European Institute for Progressive Cultural Policies, http://eipcp.net/transversal/0806/butler/en
Etienne Balibar, “Critique in the 21st Century,” Radical Philosophy, 200 (Nov/Dec 2016), https://www.radicalphilosophy.com/article/critique-in-the-21st-century
Bernard E. Harcourt, “Counter-Critical Theory and Practice,” Critical Times, Vol. 1 (forthcoming 2017)
Didier Fassin, “The Endurance of Critique,” forthcoming in Anthropological Theory
Bruno Latour, “Why Has Critique Run out of Steam? From Matters of Fact to Matters of Concern (2014),” Critical Inquiry, Vol. 30 (2), Winter 2004, pp. 225-248.
Judith Butler, Ernesto Laclau, Slavoj Žižek, Contingency, Hegemony, Universality (New York: Verso, 2000).